Explore our orthodontic options for kids and adults and learn what you can expect from each treatment.

Early Orthodontic Treatment

When should your child first visit the orthodontist?

The Canadian Association of Orthodontists recommends children first visit the orthodontist by the age of seven. By this time, the first permanent molars and incisors have usually come in. This early phase of treatment is known as early or preventive orthodontics (Phase I).

What does early orthodontics treat?

Even at an early age, dental and skeletal problems such as crowded teeth, narrow or underdeveloped jaws, large or overdeveloped jaws, cross bites, overbites, and underbites can start to develop.

Early phase orthodontics can treat the following issues:

  • Early or late loss of baby teeth
  • Thumb sucking
  • Tongue thrusting
  • Chewing and breathing issues
  • Upper and lower teeth that don’t meet correctly
  • Speech problems
  • Jaw growth and alignment problems
  • Potential loss or impaction (buried teeth) of adult teeth

What does early orthodontic treatment involve?

Early treatment can include expanders, partial braces, and orthodontic appliances. It can reduce or prevent the need for more invasive treatment in the future and can help stop harmful oral habits.

Dentofacial Orthopedics

What is dentofacial orthopedics?

Dentofacial orthopedics, or growth modification, involves guiding the facial growth and development in children. The aim is to achieve proper balance and structure of the face bones and jaws, as well as the surrounding muscles and soft tissues.

What does the treatment involve?

Orthopedic treatment can take place with or without conventional braces. The orthodontist diagnoses and treats the teeth, jaws, bones, and surrounding tissues, bringing them into a harmonious equilibrium. While treatments depend on the individual, orthodontic appliances like jaw expanders, jaw positioners, or functional appliances are often used.

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Orthodontics for Adults

How can orthodontic treatment benefit adults?

Getting orthodontic treatment as an adult can improve your overall health. A beautiful, healthy smile can have an impact on your confidence to show your smile.

Adult orthodontic treatment may help you avoid costly dental work down the road. Crooked teeth increase your chances of plaque and food build-up and make it very difficult to brush and floss properly, which can cause cavities and gum disease.

Misaligned teeth can also cause jaw shifting, uneven bite, and distribution of forces, which may lead to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) issues, headaches, and ear pain. Correctly aligned teeth may be less prone to getting cavities, chipping, becoming irregularly worn down, developing gum or bone disease, and having receding gums.

Is it too late to get straight teeth?

There’s no age limit for starting orthodontic treatment! Your teeth can move at any age, even if you’ve had braces before. In fact, almost 20% of people in braces today are adults.

Getting orthodontic treatment as an adult may be worth the investment. Adult orthodontic treatment options like clear braces and Invisalign (clear aligners) are great alternatives to traditional metal braces. You can achieve improved aesthetics while in treatment without compromising results.

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Clear Braces

What are clear braces?

Although some people use this term to refer to Invisalign, clear braces in this case are actually similar to traditional metal braces. Unlike metal braces, however, these are made of ceramic and are white or tooth coloured, which helps the brackets blend in with the shades of natural teeth. The ceramic is generally non-staining.

Are clear braces right for you?

Clear ceramic braces tend to be used more on upper front teeth than on lower teeth. They can also be used on the lower teeth if the bite is permitting. While they’re visually less prominent, clear braces do require more attention to eating habits as they’re larger and more brittle than their metal counterparts.

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Surgical Orthodontics

What is surgical orthodontics?

Surgical orthodontics, jaw surgery, or orthognathic surgery treats and corrects jaw irregularities. These irregularities can affect your ability to chew, talk, sleep, and breathe. The surgery also improves facial appearance.

What's involved in surgical orthodontics?

When jaw surgery is required, total orthodontic treatment generally takes between 10 to 18 months of active orthodontic treatment. Surgery wait and recovery may increase this time period. Before and after jaw surgery, you’ll need to wear braces and regularly visit the orthodontist.

Patients can undergo lower jaw surgery, upper jaw surgery, or a combination of both. Patients usually heal within four to eight weeks, and most have their braces removed six to 12 months after the surgery.


What is temporomandibular disorder (TMD)?

Your temporomandibular joints (TMJs) connect your lower jawbone to your skull. TMD occurs when there are problems with the muscles and jaw joints in the face.

What are the symptoms?

Common TMD symptoms include:

  • Pain in the jaw joint area
  • Ringing or stuffiness in the ears
  • Frequent headaches or neck aches
  • Clicking or popping sound when the jaw moves
  • Muscle spasms in the jaw area
  • A change in the alignment of top and bottom teeth
  • Locked jaw
  • Limited opening of the mouth
  • Unstable biting position

How is TMD treated?

Orthodontic treatment for TMD depends on the history and cause of the problem and on the individual, but common treatment options include:

  • Stress management techniques to reduce jaw clenching
  • Mouth exercises and function guidelines
  • Medication (pain meds, muscle relaxants)
  • Heat and cold compresses
  • Orthopedic appliances
  • Parafunctional habit controlling appliances

Sleep Apnea

What is sleep apnea?

Sleep apnea is a condition in which your breathing stops periodically during sleep. Each time you stop breathing in your sleep, the resulting lack of oxygen alerts your brain, which temporarily wakes you up to restart proper breathing. The constant wake-sleep cycle prevents you from achieving deep sleep. This condition can affect both adults and children and has to be diagnosed by a physician using a sleep study.

What are the signs of sleep apnea?

Contact us if you notice one or more of the following symptoms of sleep apnea:

  • Insomnia or difficulty sleeping
  • Loud snoring at night
  • Waking up at night short of breath
  • Snorting or choking sounds during the night (indicating a restart of breathing)
  • Headaches upon waking in the morning
  • Falling asleep unintentionally during the day
  • Extreme drowsiness throughout the day
  • Very low energy throughout the day

What does sleep apnea treatment involve?

Treatment for sleep apnea depends on the type of apnea and the severity of the case. Besides basic behavioural treatment, oral devices can be used to position the mouth in a way that prevents throat blockage. In more severe cases, surgery might be the best option.

A diagnosis of sleep apnea must be done by a family physician or a specialist in sleep medicine.

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Our orthodontist will help you determine which treatment option is right for you.

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